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Special Education

Books (Print & Online)

Book: General

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. doi:xxxxx

Entire Book: Print Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/dxeprint/index.asp

If no publisher:

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/dxeprint/index.asp

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0034586772

Entire Book:
Print Version (Two Authors)

Hock, R., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

Entry in Online Reference Work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism

Entry in Online Reference Work (No Author)

Trebuchet. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam -webster.com/dictionary/trebuchet

Book:
No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Book: Multivolume

When citing a multivolume work:

Wright, Sewell. (1968-1978). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. (Vols. 1-4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. (1969). Theory of Gene Frequencies: Vol. 2. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


For additional examples, see pages 202-208 in the APA Publication Manual (2010) or the Citation Guide Examples tab.

Journal Articles (Print & Online)

Journal: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Vol, pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL.)

Journal Article with DOI

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

According to the APA Manual 6.32: "Provide the doi if one has been assigned to the content. When a doi is used no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content. If no doi has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal or the book or report publisher. If you are accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL."

Journal Article Online

Journal Article without DOI(when DOI is not available)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range.       Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3),        120-125. Retrieved from http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/

"If there is no DOI assigned and you retrieved the article electronically, give the URL of the journal homepage."  APA manual
If you retrieved the article from a database and there is no DOI see the next box.
Journal Article without DOI

Graham, S. (2006). Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies, 40, 156-159.

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

If the DOI is not available, INCLUDE the persistent URL of te article or " (e.g. http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=09a25663-0c87-4bac-9db7-6556dbb7b51c%40sessionmgr12&vid=3&hid=16). 

Author(s). (Year). Title of journal article.Title of Journal, volume(issue), page numbers. Retrieved from URL of the article.

from The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology

Journal with Non-Continuous Pagination (each issue begins on page 1)

Simmons, C., & Becker-Olsen, K. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 154-169.

If retrieved online include URL (see above)

Magazine Article Print

Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 16(4), 35-36.

Online Magazine Article

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retreved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/

Newspaper Article Print

Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.), pp. D1-D2.

Newspaper Article Online

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com


For additional examples, see pages 198-202 in the APA Publication Manual (2010) or the Citation Guide Examples tab.

Audiovisual Media

Entire Albums

The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band [Record]. United States: Capitol Records.

Individual Songs

Glover, Frank. (2009). One way ticket. On Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Rerecording by Artist other than Writer

Goodenough, J. B. (1982). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records. (1990)

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To Kill a Mockingbird (Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.

Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

Motion Picture Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.
Video

Ryan, K. O., & Schrank, L. (Writers). (2008). Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. Available from http://www.learningseed.com/

Single Episode from Television Series

David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Map Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf


List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution.

For additional examples, see pages 209-210 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Other Online Sources

Online Posting: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

(If only author's screen name is available, use that for the author's name.)

Entire website

author of site. (date). Title of website. Retrieved date (month day, year) from http://www.xxx  If no author, use title of website as first entry and if no date use n.d.

National Park Service. (2011). Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/havo/index.htm

NOTE:  The title of the website is only capitalized because it is a proper noun, otherwise you only capitalize the first word and the first word after a colon.

Message Posted to Newsgroup, Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retreived from http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments

Message Posted to Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ForensicNetwork/message/670

(Note: "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.)

Blog Post

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

(Note: "MiddleKid" is a screen name, which the author used when posting to this blog.)


For additional examples, see pages 214-215 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Performances & Personal Communications

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications, personal interviews, etc. Because they do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list. The same is true of live performances.

Instead, you should cite these sources in your text with initial and last name of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.

Samples:

M. E. Daniels, Jr. (personal communication, July 4, 2009), explained in an email that . . .

(Butler Ballet, performance, December 13, 2008)

If you are citing a recording or archived copy of the performance or personal communication, these forms are recoverable and should be referenced in your Works Cited list as a video, online forum post, tape recording, etc.

Creative Commons License

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